Nepal is a melting pot of many races and tribes. Total population of Nepal has been continuously increasing over time. According to an estimation of Central Bureau of Statistics Nepal, total population is estimated to be 28.4 million in 2010 made up of an assortment of races and tribes, living in different regions, wearing different costumes and speaking different languages and dialects.It ranked 40th position with 0.41% of world population in 2010. There is regular census in Nepal in every ten years and the last census was conducted in 2001. According to that census, population of Nepal was 23.1 million. Out of total population the share of male and female was 49.96 and 50.04 percent respectively. Annual average growth rate during 1991 to 2001 was 2.25. Similarly, population density was 157 square kilometer. Majority of people live in rural areas. Geographically, 48.4 percent people live in Plain followed by 44.3 percent in Hill and only 7.3 percent people in Mountain. .The literacy rate and life expectancy at birth were 54.1 and 60.4 percent respectively.
Major Cities (pop. est.); Kathmandu 419,100, Biratnagar 130,100, Lalitpur 117,200, Pokhara 95,300, Bhaktapur 68,800 (1991). Land Use; forested 39%, pastures 15%, agricultural-cultivated 17%, other 29% (1992).
The composition of Nepalese society is diversified with multilingual, multicultural and multiethnic country. The best known of the high mountain peoples are the Sherpas who inhabit the central and eastern regions of Nepal. The Sherpas have easy access to Bhot (Tibet) for trade and social intercourse and therefore Tibetan influence on their culture and civilization remains distinct. The midlands are inhabited by various Tibeto-Burman and Indo-Aryan speaking hill and valley people, for example the Brahmins, Chettris, and Newars. While the Brahmins and Chettris are widely distributed throughout the country, the Newars are mainly concentrated in the Katmandu Valley and other towns. People of different race and religion live there and practice their own culture tradition and customs, among those, 80.62 % Hindus followed by Buddhists 10.74 %, Islam 4.2%, Kirat 3.6%, Christians 0.45 % and 0.39 %others. 102 ethnic groups live harmoniously with more than 100 languages, Nepali is the national official language and about 49 percent people speak Nepali followed by Maithili 12.3, Bhojpuri 7.53, Tharu 5.86, Tamang 5.9, Newar 3.63 percent etc.